River, Coastal Engineering

Land is very valuable. Authorities / Owners frequently want to manage natural watercourses as well as man made in order to lessen erosion and other issues that uncontrolled water may bring about. Watercourses are unavoidably contaminated by the soils created by hydraulic erosion, which results in the loss of habitat and ecosystem.

River Training and Protection Works are provided to confine the flow of water in a given cross section and in a particular alignment. River training and protection work includes guide bunds, launching apron, spurs, toe protection.

Guide bunds are provided for guiding the flow of water in a given cross section and in particular alignment. Guide bunds also prevent the river cutting into the bridge approaches, causing breaches and forming deep scour at abutments.

The river side earthen slope of guide bund is protected against river action by covering them with mechanically woven double twisted wire mesh gabions filled with stones and nonwoven geotextile as filter media.

For toe protection, gabion mattresses in the form of launching apron or toe wall shall be provided based on the severity of the scour.

Launching apron shall be provided for the protection of toe and it shall form a continuous flexible Cover over the slope of the possible scour hole. In places where geotechnical stable bed slope is not available due to deep scour hole for placing the launching apron, geotextile bags or cylindrical gabions are used for filling of scour holes [ as per IRC:SP:113 & IRC:SP:116].The cylindrical gabions can be either filled with stones or lined with geotextile material filled with sand. The cylindrical gabion system works as a composite system at places where IRC:89-2019 17 geotextile bags alone would not be able to withstand the shear stresses induced by the water on the system components.

Products Used

Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters. Flood relief methods are used to reduce the effects of flood waters or high-water levels.

For reliable flood control, one can construct safe dams and dykes in the long term. Erosion-protected and securely sealed channels, spillways and stormwater retention basins can also be realised quickly and efficiently with geosynthetics helps in flood control. In this way, structures with geosynthetics offer the best possible protection even during heavy rainfall events.

When permanent defences fail, emergency measures such as geotextile bags or inflatable impermeable bags filled with sand are used for flood relief.

Products Used

A levee, dike, embankment, flood bank is an earthen structure that often runs parallel to a river's course in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines. Groins are shore protection structures that decrease erosion affects to the shoreline by changing offshore current and wave patterns.

Groins and Dikes can be built by materials such as Gabion, Sack Gabions and nonwoven geotextile is used for lining base for better drainage.

Products Used

For coastal construction, many times there is need for temporary working platform is needed which will merge with coastal life without obstructing it.

Working platform is supposed to carry loads and wave impact so permeable and monolithic structure is needed which can be achieved by using gabion units provides more weight per unit cost and hence economical. Non-woven geotextile can be used for lining base for better drainage.

Products Used

Land reclamation is the process of creating new land from the sea. Now a days, it is common method of land reclamation involves simply filling the area with gabions or gabion fascia reinforced with geogrid, then filling with soil until the desired height is reached.

Products Used

There are various structures that considered or used as coastal protection structures for example groins, seawalls, bulkheads, break waters, and jetties.

Jetty structure is constructed at river estuary or harbor entrance and extended into deeper water to oppose forming of sandbars and limit currents. Jetties are usually built of materials such as Gabion mattress.

Seawalls are commonly built and run along shoreline to prevent coastal structures and areas from the detrimental influence of ocean wave actions and flooding which are driven by storms.

Geotextile bags and Geotextile tubes filled with sand are used to construct flexible and eco-friendly structures for coastal protection which are sustainable, aesthetically pleasing and friendly to marine life. Geotextiles as filters below hard armour revetments for shore protection.

Products Used